This paper offers an updated look at the early history of the settlement of Knossos and its immediate hinterland based on the combination of new survey material and a review of legacy data from the long history of excavations in the area. The approach aims to provide a better understanding of the Prepalatial (Neolithic to Middle Minoan IA) settlement history at the Kephala Hill and nearby areas that complements the traditional focus on stratigraphic excavations under and around the later Bronze Age palace. The Prepalatial material collected and analysed by the Knossos Urban Landscape Project (KULP)is presented in a preliminary form but already sheds new light on the initial process of urbanisation at the site. The analysed data identify a sizeable community at Knossos from the Final Neolithic that slowly grew during the 3rd millennium BCE. The settlement experienced a rapid period of growth at the start of the 2nd millennium BCE that marks the beginning of its development as an urban centre. This is also a moment at which we can identify a major re-organisation in the occupation of the valley and possibly also in the funerary landscape around the settlement.