TRANSPORTATION AND INFLUENCES IN THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY OF THE SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF HERAKLION IN 1858-1878 (BASED ON DOCUMENTS, LETTERS AND REPORTS OF THE ARCHIVES OF THE [CHRISTIAN] ELDERS' COUNCIL OF HERAKLION AND OF THE VIKELAIA MUNICIPAL LIBRARY).
This paper is a comparative analysis, completion and documentation of my previous work on the history of education in the Department of Heraklion, concerning the critical period of the Cretan Risings. Here are listed newer details regarding transportation of pupils, teachers, educational supervising material and the influences of programs, teaching methods and ideas, inside and outside the city of Heraklion and Crete, which emerged from the continuation of my research on the operation of Heraklion City Schools, the external influences they received, their conditions, their teachers, their qualifications and their salaries, their curriculum, the material resources, the proposed improvement measures, etc. Through the data of important letters, reports and tables, the main characteristics of the aforementioned movements and influences are analyzed, compared and presented, as are the conditions of the education process of the time. This paper clarifies the elementary and basic education (primary and secondary) traditionally organized by the Elders’ Council of Heraklion and the School Committees of the City. Furthermore, it presents the prospects for full development with the continuous creation, supervision and financing of new municipal schools in the province and the entire Heraklion Department, as well as the gradual development of the Cretan Gymnasium of Heraklion. Additionally, an effort is made to further analyze the aforementioned movements with prior and subsequent educational situations (e.g. pre- and post-rising), in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of education in these dark and difficult years for the city of Heraklion and Crete as a whole.